Issue 1(1) 2020
Welcoming remarks to the readers of the “Pacific geography” journal. BAKLANOV P.Ya. – p.5
Theory and methodology of the geographical research
BAKLANOV. P.Ya. The geosystem approach in geographical researches – p.7
NOVIKOV A.N., NOVIKOVA M.S. Variability of worldview formulas in geography – p.13
Examination of the natural geosystems and their components
GANZEI K.S. Polystructurality and polygenetics of island geosystems – p.21
MAKHINOV A.N., KIM V.I. Effect of climate changes on the hydrological regime of the Amur River – p.30
Regional structures of the nature management
BROVKO P.F., DZEN G.N., ZHUKOVINA M.G., MALYUGIN A.V. The lagoon shores of the Pacific Russia: factors of sea coast evolution and nature management – p.40
ERMOSHIN V.V., BAZAROV K.Yu. Comparative analysis of changes in natural-antropogenic complexes of the Pacific Russia coastal zone – p.48
KARAKIN V.P. Small-scale natural-economic zoning of the coast of Pacific Russia according to the natural conditions of economic development – p.59
History of the geographical study and development
SNYTKO V.A. Academician Viktor Borisovich Sochava as the researcher of the Far East – p.70
All-Russian (national) research-to-practice conference 1st Readings dedicated to the memory of the Kamchatka researcher R.S. Moiseev “Regional problems of the Russian Far East and Arctic” (December 11–12, 2019, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Russia). TOKRANOV A.M. – p.75
Instructions for authors – p.78
BAKLANOV P.Ya. The geosystem approach in geographical researches.
Annotation: The period of formation of the geosystem approach in geographical researches is singled out. The fullest object in which real spatial interrelations and interfaces of various natural, natural-resource, social, infrastructural and technogenic components are reflected is the integrated geosystem allocated within certain compact territory. Spatial development also can be covered in integrated geosystems fuller as qualitative-quantitative accretion in spatial structures. Allocation of several levels of the spatial analysis, including the local one and the level of separate settlements is offered. Integrated geosystems and their combinations should become the basic object of working out of the regional programs of spatial development and territorial governance. Geoinformation, digital technologies, big databases, and supercomputers should become the effective tool of governance.
Keywords: geosystem, geographical researches, structure, components, communications, territorial, spatial, dynamics.
NOVIKOV A.N., NOVIKOVA M.S. Variability of worldview formulas in geography.
Annotation: Geography is a worldview science, the question of the perception of geographical reality is a key one for it. The use of worldview formulas in a geography course determines not only the further perception of geographical phenomena, processes and objects by people, but also determines the course of development of geographical science. The structure of a geography course in Russian high school that has been formed over decades consists of four stages. At the university, the training system for future geography teachers consists of the same stages, however, this is not just an in-depth repetition of the school curriculum, it is a completely new, higher level of geographical education. Both at the school and university levels, changes occur on the scale of topics and sections of individual stages, but the stages remain unchanged. The inter-stage level is the limit; its awareness does not fall into the field of reflection of teachers and methodologists. There are no scientific papers on its analysis.
The research method is dialectics, the laws of which work in the form of worldview formulas. The authors consider the following formulas: dichotomy (duality), trichotomy (triplicity), quaternary (quaternity). Of interest is the work of worldview formulas, which is expressed in the decomposition of a single content into parts (analysis) with its subsequent combination (synthesis) into a whole at inter-topic, intra-stage, inter-stage levels. With regard to the course of study of geography, its structure can be considered from the position of all worldview formulas. A dichotomy is the complementarity of natural and social geography, which complement each other at various levels. A trichotomy of positional, sectoral, and regional geography is observed in both natural and social geography.
The existing four-stage structure of geographical education is an optimal technological solution in the quadruple format, which summarizes all other worldview formulas and makes it possible to use them variably.
The perception of geographical objects, processes and phenomena in the format of worldview formulas in the system of geographical education is reduced to a dichotomy. The introduction of the remaining formulas remains the main task that must be solved at the level of higher education.
It is shown that in school geographical education the problem of perception formation does not manifest itself clearly and therefore is not recognized. Problems begin to manifest at the inter-stage level.
Mastering worldview formulas is a matter of reflecting geographical reality. It is proved that in the transition from level to level, the independence of geographical thinking and distance from stereotypes increases, the heuristic potential increases due to the combination of formulas, which gives variability of the reflection of geographical reality.
Keywords: dialectics, dichotomy, worldview, trichotomy, quaternary.
GANZEI K.S. Polystructurality and polygenetics of island geosystems.
Annotation: Research into the nature and structure of polygenetic landscapes began in the 1970s and showed that the physical geography of landscapes results from the combined effects of multiple geophysical fields. Based on a comprehensive study of continental landscapes, spatial and temporal aspects of the multistructure and polygenetics of landscape space were revealed. Because islands are isolated, their origin, area and topography are distinct from continental areas. These distinctions have been revealed by studies of island landscapes. The peculiarities of manifestation and interaction of the geostationary, geocirculating and biocirculating geophysical fields result in the the formation of the polystructural and polygenetic landscapes of island geosystem. This is shown on the basis of research focused on landscape organization of the Kurile and Hawaiian Islands and those of Peter the Great Bay (the Sea of Japan). As on the continents a key place in the process of landscape differentiation on the islands, belongs to the geostationary geophysical field. But for island geosystems, it determines the most important landscape-forming factors - the area and height of the land. The rate of landscape restoration after eruptions for island geosystems of volcanic active regions is clearly manifested through a change in the indicators of complexity of the landscape. First of all it is manifested through the wave dynamics of the values of landscape diversity. The key in the process of forming the biota of the island geosystems is due to the principle of superposition. The isolation, area and height of the island forms unique features of the flora and fauna. It is demonstrated that the island geosystems represent the combination of all genetic versions of geosystems. The genesis, physical properties and spatial location of island geosystems define their regional features, whereas the fundamental processes of functioning remain uniform and do not depend on any factors, but rather are caused by the presence of the properties of closed geographical systems.
Keywords: island geosystems, closed geographic systems, Kurile Islands, Hawaiian Islands, Peter the Great Bay Islands.
MAKHINOV A.N., KIM V.I. Effect of climate changes on the hydrological regime of the Amur River.
Annotation: The transformation of hydrological regime of the Amur River caused by the global warming in the region is considered. Based on the conducted by the IWEP of FEB of RAS analysis of the air temperature and precipitation amount trends at the meteorological stations in different parts of the Amur River basin with longtime series of observations, the rates of changing the basic meteorological parameters were evaluated. It has been established that the amplitude of the maximum annual water levels, activity of the river bed evolution and drift of ice phenomena times react more noticeably to the climatic changes. They come against the background of the anthropogenic impact a role of which is most critical at the local sections. It was shown that a change in the hydrological regime in the Amur River basin will enhance a risk of the dangerous natural processes in the Far-Eastern region.
Keywords: Amur-river, climate change, floods, channel processes, ice phenomena.
BROVKO P.F., DZEN G.N., ZHUKOVINA M. G., MALYUGIN A.V. The lagoon shores of the Pacific Russia:
factors of sea coast evolution and nature management.
Annotation: The coastal zone of the East Arctic and Far-Eastern seas of Pacific Russia has a wide range of the morphogenetic types of the shores. The lagoon shores are most fully presented among them. The lagoons evolution is caused by the world ocean level increase. An increase in storm activity leads to a significant transformation of the terrain. New straits and islands are formed and the deltas are transformed. The manifestation of the geographic zonality in the dynamics of shores is essential. It is shown that the ice factor plays an important role in the morphology and dynamics of lagoons in the Sea of Okhotsk. The natural conditions for the formation of coasts make it possible to consider them as subarctic. The coastal-marine management is of versatile nature: catch of fish, algae and invertebrates; hydrotechnical construction; mining of seashore placers of the heavy metals; development of balneal resources. The mariculture and ecotourism are well represented. Sometimes the lagoon shores are formed under conditions of active technogenic impact.
Keywords: lagoon shores, East Arctic seas, Far Eastern seas, shore evolution, coastal-marine management.
ERMOSHIN V.V., BAZAROV K.Yu. Comparative analysis of changes in natural-antropogenic complexes of the Pacific Russia coastal zone.
Annotation: In the article the experience of application of spectrum-zonal remote sensing images occurring at different times for mapping the changes of nature-anthropogenic complexes of the key areas of coastal zones is considered for last 30–40 years. Necessity of the analysis of natural conditions and anthropogenic changes of the coastal zone of Pacific Russia as the conditions of ability to live and the indicator of rationality of nature use at a new level is considered. It is shown that carrying out such estimations in the existing and potential ’’growth points’’- core seaside areas of development is the most actual. The obtainable Internet data on remote sensing, their features, and characteristics suitable for decision of a set task are listed; the criteria of selection are conditioned. The technique of interpretation of remote sensing data and complexity, while using the space data of the different type and occurring at different time, is considered. As a result of implementation of the work, the GIS-layers displaying the structure of nature-anthropogenic complexes have been obtained. The comparative analysis of the changes of natural and anthropogenic complexes of potential core area of development “Olga-Vladimir Bay” and the southern site of the biosphere Sikhote-Alin reserve, conditionally accepted as a natural standard not touched by the anthropogenic influence, has been carried out. It is established that the changes of natural landscapes of the coastal zone of the Sikhote-Alin reserve occur naturally without anthropogenic intervention; the qualitative changes of the structure of landscapes has not been observed; the calculations of the changes of the values of a vegetative index for the corresponding periods of time show positive dynamics that confirms an increase in phytomass in case of natural successions. The results of interpretation of geoinformation mapping and the carried out comparative analysis show that any critical and essential changes occurred in the landscape structure of the considered key area and on the territories located in the zone of its influence. It is approved that the dominating position of the forest and open woodland landscapes will create buffer effect and will provide stability of these territories relatively to preservation of quality of the environment in case of the possible increase in anthropogenic load if further potential development of these territories happens as the key areas of development in coastal zones.
Keywords: coastal zone, natural-anthropogenic complexes, remote sensing analysis, GIS-mapping.
KARAKIN V.P. Small-scale natural-economic zoning of the coast of Pacific Russia according to the natural conditions of economic development.
Annotation: The socio-economic development of the Russian Far East (RFE) is set as one of the national priorities of the Russian Federation for the 21st century. The effective implementation of the stated strategic development goals demands adapting to the territorial scale of the region, its geographical and economic heterogeneity by means of various zoning of the region as a whole and its subregions. As an initial step in this process, a small-scale natural-economic zoning of the Coastal Zone of Pacific Russia (CZ PR) was done. This zoning was based on an analysis of information about the spatial differentiation of natural resource factors that are significant for natural resources management and livelihoods within the subregion, namely agro-climatic resources, climate comfort for living, ice conditions, etc. Following the prevailing geographical tradition and most natural zoning approaches, which consider variations in heat supply and zonal types of vegetation as the main factor of differentiation of natural conditions, the author divided the space of the CZ PR into three belts - Arctic, Subarctic and Moderate. Several subzones within each belt are also distinguished according to the changes in heat supply and changes in the type of botanical and geographical subzones. Finally, the borders of the zones and subzones are defined by reaction to the natural conditions of the subjects of regionalization. Two sectors are also distinguished, the Mainland and Island ones. The most important difference between them is in manifestation of dangerous natural phenomena for life and natural resources management. It is substantiated that the moderate Southtaiga and forest-steppe belt within the CZ PR has the best conditions for economic development (moderately favourable and relatively uncomfortable conditions for life and natural resources management, commodity agriculture, etc.). There are no rigid restrictions for port activity due to ice conditions in winter in this belt. The zoning results provide information for selecting the most acceptable strategic development models from the resource and economic point of view for apportioned territories of the CZ PR (belts, subzones) e.g. frontal, focal and pointed ones.
Keywords: Pacific Russia, coastal zone, natural conditions.
SNYTKO V.A. Academician Viktor Borisovich Sochava as the researcher of the Far East.
Abstract. The contribution of Viktor Borisovich Sochava (1905-1978) to the knowledge of the Far East nature was considered. His investigations of the region were begun in the late 1920s and continued over the course of decades. He has solved a number of problems of botany and physical geography and proposed the zonation of territory.
Keywords: Sochava, Far East, landscapes, tundra, zonation.
Issue 2(2) 2020
Theory and methodology of the geographical research
SHAMOV V.V. The nature-management ethics: toward a theoretical basis for adaptive strategy – p.5
Examination of the territorial socio-economic systems and their components
GLUSHKO A.A., RIABININA L.I. Spatial differentiation of demographic processes in the Asia-Pacific region and their impact on the external labor mobility of the population – p.15
MOSHKOV A.V. Infrastructure zones of economic development of the Far Eastern federal district of Russia – p.
SUKHOVEEVA A.B. Modern dynamics and problems of preserving human potential in Russia – p.40
Regional structures of the nature management
CHERNYKH D.V., LUBENETS L.F., ZINOVIEVA A.YE. Preliminary assessment of cultural ecosystem services potential in the mountain protected area based on interviewing (Ust-Koksinsky district and the Katunsky biosphere reserve (Altai Republic) as the case study area) – p.50
History of the geographical study and development
SHVEDOV V.G. By the anniversary of the Kumar battle of 1655 – p.60
Discussions, summaries and reviews
Summary of monograph «Natural complex of the Ussuriisk urban
district: current state». GLUSHCHENKO Yu.N. – p.70
In memory of the colleague. Matvei Tikhonovich Romanov. BAKLANOV P.Ya., MOSHKOV A.V. – p.72
SHAMOV V.V. The nature-management ethics: toward a theoretical basis for adaptive strategy.
Abstract. Nature management within a given territory must be now comprehensive and multi-purpose. Nevertheless, if someone follows the system approach principles in his research and also in economic practice, a methodological narrowness of such requirement is found. From the author’s point of view, we should follow the requirement of the economic development of geosystems: transformation of natural-economic or resource systems aimed at socio-economic development of certain territories should be comprehensive. In the article, on the basis of the concept of the system’s invariant, the author briefly formulates some presuppositions of adaptive nature management strategy which, in this context, refers to as the «nature management ethics». The adaptiveness in strategy is defined here as the maximum consideration of the general law (logic) of the spatially distributed quasi-natural system development in the preparing and implementation of nature management programs / schemes. Within the framework of adaptive nature management strategy, the author substantiates a thesis: the problems in nature management practice and related environmental problems arise from economical contradictions between users of resources, in other words, the problems arising from this are primarily solved in the socio-political sphere as related to conflicts of economic interests between societal groups on a given territory. The author determines concepts of sustainability, degradation and inherent mass of geosystems, as well as the concepts of ethical, sub-ethical and unethical economic impact on the natural components of resource systems. The original interpretation of the mentioned concepts is introduced as a necessary step along the path toward formalization and making engineering decisions in the nature management science. The concept of specific mass of a geosystem is defined as the number of the most general historical forms of a geosystem - the number of constituents of its invariant, an ordered combination of which reflects its inherited general structure.
Keywords: nature management, geosystem, invariant, sustainable development, ethics.
GLUSHKO A.A., RIABININA L.I. Spatial differentiation of demographic processes in the Asia-Pacific region and their impact on the external labor mobility of the population
Abstract. The paper presents the results of the analysis of dynamics and differentiation in the demographic development of the Asia-Pacific region for the period 2000-2019 with emphasis on changes in the external labor mobility of the population. Selected assessment indicators comply with the principles of openness and comprehensiveness. These indicators became the basis for the analysis of the extent and trends of intra-regional differences in the studied demographic space. Based on the variational analysis, the following indicators retained a relatively high degree of differentiation: average annual population growth rates, rate of natural increase, rate of migration, general and total fertility rates, share of urban population, percentages of children and older people in the population. In many ways, they determine modern intercountry differences in forming the potential of external labor mobility, which provides optimal resource allocation and the much-needed flexibility and stability in the development of the regional economy. A comprehensive assessment of intraregional differentiation was carried out using cluster analysis of the integral level coefficients and dynamics of demographic development. Countries were divided in five clusters. The first three clusters included most of the East Asian countries (excluding Mongolia), characterized by the relatively low values of the integral index of dynamics. The fourth and fifth clusters included most states of the Southeast Asia (excluding Singapore and Thailand), characterized by the relatively high values of the index. The authors emphasize on the importance of the intensification of the population movements in the Asia-Pacific region, as it allows for the better placement of labor resources in the countries of the region and the adaptation of their economies to asymmetric shocks. Key directions of the state policies regarding development of the labor resource potential of the countries are presented.
Keywords: integral index of demographic development, intraregional differentiation, variational analysis, cluster analysis, labor resources, labor mobility, Asia-Pacific Region.
MOSHKOV A.V. Infrastructure zones of economic development of the Far Eastern federal district of Russia.
Abstract. The most important socio-economic problem facing the regions of the Russian Federation is the low level of development of industrial and social infrastructure. To a large extent, poor infrastructure development in the far Eastern Federal district limits the ability to effectively use the rich natural resource potential of the region’s territory and water area. The spatial development of existing and prospective economic activities is also largely determined by the availability of infrastructure facilities in the regions and their ability to provide the necessary level of services to production and end users.
Under the influence of a combination of economic and geographical factors, two types of socio-economic (infrastructure) zones have developed on the territory of the far Eastern Federal district. First, the latitudinal zone 1) Northern part of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Chukotka Autonomous district, Magadan region, Kamchatka region; 2) southern Primorsky, Khabarovsk, Amur, Sakhalin regions and Jewish Autonomous region; 3) southwest – the Republic of Buryatia and Zabaykalsky Krai. Secondly, meridional: 1) coastal (Pacific) – as part of the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Magadan region, Kamchatka, Primorsky and Khabarovsk territories, Sakhalin region; 2) continental – the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), the Amur region and the Jewish Autonomous region, the Republic of Buryatia and the TRANS-Baikal territory.
All zones differ in the level of development of infrastructure types of economic activity. At the same time, the highest level of infrastructure development is observed in the subjects of the southern latitudinal and coastal meridional infrastructure zones of the far Eastern Federal district. Within the infrastructure zones, the subjects of the district are distinguished, which differ markedly in the provision of industrial and social infrastructure services.
Improving the quality and standard of living of the population is possible primarily due to economic growth in the regions, on the basis of rational use of favorable factors available in the regions, including the creation of a developed infrastructure base for the development of all types of activities.
Keywords: Far Eastern Federal district, territorial and sectoral structure, industrial and social infrastructure, latitudinal and meridional infrastructure zones, quality of life of the population, economic growth, spatial development, types of economic activity.
SUKHOVEEVA A.B. Modern dynamics and problems of preserving human potential in Russia.
Abstract. The deterioration of the qualitative characteristics of the population (health indicators, insufficient level of culture and education) should be attributed to the most significant negative factors in the social development of Russia and its regions. The article assesses the current level of human development in Russia and the Far Eastern regions on the basis of human development index (HDI) data. The HDI of Russia is compared with that of some countries of Europe and the Asia-Pacific region, which have the best values (points) of the human development index for the period of 1990– 2018. In a cross-country comparison, the most problematic components of human potential for Russia were identified. In the interregional comparison for 2000–2016, a grouping of regions by HDI was carried out, aimed at identifying promising and less promising subjects of the Far East for the formation, development and possible preservation of human potential. Using the correlation analysis, the relationship between the value of investment in fixed assets per capita and the HDI index, as well as its indices of longevity and income, is revealed. The results of the grouping of FER subjects by HDI are confirmed by the types of regions according to the quality of life of the population for 2010–2016. It is shown that the low level of development of the social sphere, the level and quality of life of the population, which reduce the quality of human potential and prevent its increase, are the constraining factors of the socio-economic development of the regions and, therefore, low HDI and QOL values. It is necessary to pursue a more effective social policy, with a focus on increasing budgetary and attracting private investment in the regional economy.
Keywords: human potential, human development index, Russia, regions, Russian Far East.
CHERNYKH D.V., LUBENETS L.F., ZINOVIEVA A.E. Preliminary assessment of cultural ecosystem services potential in the mountain protected area based on interviewing (Ust-Koksinsky district and the Katunsky biosphere reserve (Altai Republic) as the case study area).
Abstract. Cultural ecosystem services (CES) are defined as the nonmaterial benefits that people obtain from ecosystems. CES is one of the four pillars comprising common ecosystem services classifications. They form an important part of tourism amenities. The study of CES has been considered one of the most difficult and least accomplished tasks in ecosystem services research. Despite growing research over the last decade, CES assessment still remains arbitrary. They are difficult to quantify in biophysical assessments, and their economic evaluation is generally subject to controversy. CES require very different measures to those generally used by biophysical scientists. Spatially explicit assessments of CES can be broadly divided into two approaches: user-dependent subjectivist approaches and user-independent formal assessments. Studies which provide information about the CES offered by particular ecosystems or regions are more usually based on the collection of qualitative data from people who use, or visit, those areas. Mountain regions meet an increasing demand for pleasant landscapes, offering many CES to both their residents and tourists. Natural protected areas in the mountains provide society with a rich flow of ecosystem-related benefits, including CES. The work presented in this paper aims to provide a framework for assessment of CES in Ust-Koksinsky District (Altai Republic), and it is part of a larger effort to set up tools and methods for the spatially explicit evaluation of ecosystem services in Altai mountains. The present study goal is to assess full range of CES as perceived by local people. The research is conducted in the Altai Republic, which has a well developed tourism industry based on the cultural landscape and nature attractions. It was performed in four villages within the Ust-Koksinsky District near Katunskiy Biosphere Reserve. The results stem from interviews with 92 persons that were analyzed with statistical techniques. Statistical analysis was employed to identify the preference of respondents for landscape features. Among the nonmaterial benefits provided to people by landscapes, respondents most often called air quality (41 %), aesthetic value (38 %) and recreation (30 %). Multinsky Lakes and Mount Belukha are the most interesting sites to tourists. The results show that respondents relate diverse CES and multiple local-level sites to reserve. We conclude that CES assessments should be pushed ahead as indispensable elements in the management and protection of mountain landscapes. Spatially explicit information on CES that incorporates the differentiated perceptions of local populations provides a rich basis for the development of sustainable land management strategies.
Keywords: cultural ecosystem services, mountain landscapes, protected areas, interview, aesthetic values, recreation, Katunskiy Biosphere Reserve, Ust-Koksinsky District
SHVEDOV V.G. By the anniversary of the Kumar battle of 1655.
Abstract. The article is concerned with one of the key events of establishing Russia as the Pacific country – Kumar battle – taking place in March-April, 1655, in the mouth of the right tributary of the Middle Amur – Kumar River (current Humarhe). The territorial-political situation shortly before this event and totality of its prerequisites and reasons of collision of the geopolitical interests of Russia and Qing Empire in the Amur region was considered. A person of the leader of pioneers – Onufriy Stepanov – as the talented military leader and politician was characterized. An analysis of the Kumar battle conditions from the physic- and military-geographical standpoint was given. The attention was paid to description of the material-and-technical condition of the detachment of pioneers and moral-psychological motivation of their behavior in the battle against the numerically superior enemy. A reconstruction of the fortifications of the Kumar fortress, attack arming of the Manchu forces and the course of battle was carried out on the base of documental data – personal report of Onufriy Stepanov to the Yakut war leader Mikhail Ladyzhensky. An estimate of the military, territorial and geopolitical results of the victory gained over the army corps of the Qing Empire was given. The facts allowing to consider the Kumar battle as the phenomenal event made possible by the extraordinary captainship of Onufriy Stepanov were mentioned. A brief description of his further all-round activity on the consolidation of the Russian statehood in Amur region down to his death in 1658 on the Amur River is given. The Kumar battle is presented as one of the key geopolitical events in the region in the XVII century which has influenced on the further course and character of the geopolitical relations of Russia and Qing Empire and taken on the noticeable part in development of their further military confrontation and diplomatic interaction.
Key words: Amur region, Qing Empire, geopolitical interests, Kumar battle, Russian statehood.
Issue 3(3) 2020
Theory and methodology of the geographical research
RAZJIGAEVA N.G., GANZEY L.A. Title Specific of space-time organization of island geosystems in the Pleistocene–Holocene – p.5
Examination of the natural geosystems and their components
SKRYLNIK G.P. Natural risks, crises and disasters in the territory of the Russian Far East – p.18
PSHENICHNIKOV B.F., PSHENICHNIKOVA N.F., KISELYOVA A.G., RODNIKOVA I.M.
Role of Facial Bioclimatic Conditions of Soil Formation in Burozem Geography in Coastal and Insular Landscapes of Primorsky Krai (Southern Far East of Russia) – p.29
KHOLODOV A.S., GOLOKHVAST K.S. Results of investigations of the granulometric and elemental composition of the atmospheric precipitation on the territory of the RF Far East reserves – p.38
MATVEEV V.I., KURNOSOVA (VAZHOVA) A.S., KATAYKINA O.I. Results of monitoring of Lake Khanka in 2016–2018 – p.47
SHESTERKIN V.P., SHESTERKINA N.M. Seasonal and spatial variability of the ammonium nitrogen content in the Amur River near Khabarovsk in 2018–2019 – p.56
Examination of the territorial socio-economic systems and their components
DEMYANENKO A.N., KLITSENKO M.V., UKRAINSKY V.N. Research experience of informal street markets in Khabarovsk-city – p.63
Discussions, summaries and reviews
Summary of monograph “The Great Khitan Wall: North-eastern Genghis Khan bank”. PROKOPETS S.D. – p.72
In memory of the scientists
In memory of Mikhail Dmitrievich Sharygin, Dr. Sci. in Geography, Professor of the Perm State National Research University, Honoured Scientist of the Russian Federation. BALINA T.A., YEROSHKINA N.D., LUCHNIKOV A.S., MERKUSHEV S.A., STOLBOV V.A., SUBBOTINA T.V. – p.74
RAZJIGAEVA N.G., GANZEY L.A. Specific of space-time organization of island geosystems in the Pleistocene–Holocene.
Abstract. We analyze the evolution of sedimentary environments for the specific isolated geocomplexes of a low topological rank on the islands and the role of the lithogenic base (relief, parent rocks and deposits) as the factor in differentiation of the area against the background of the influence of other landscape-forming processes. The information on the geocomplex genesis and the factors determining their dynamics in the chrono-interval of several hundreds to thousands years was recorded in sections of loose deposits and can only be obtained by paleogeographic methods. The role of the lithogenic base within the framework of different age geocomplexes and its influence on the features of the development of other natural components are analyzed. A retrospective analysis allows us to determine the age-related differences of landscapes of different typological levels within the studied islands. It was revealed that with an increase in the grade of geocomplexes, their age increases compared to the age of the lower rank geocomplexes constituting them and the degree of heterochronism. On the islands, this pattern appears even brighter, since they are in the zone of interaction between land and ocean, where geomorphological processes associated with climatic changes and sea level fluctuations were very active, as well as these territories are characterized by a high degree of manifestation of azonal factors. A change in the lithogenic basis during climatic oscillations caused a restructuring of the components and, first of all, the hydrological regime and biotic components. The dependence of the biotic components of the landscape on changes in the moisture regime is especially evident in landscape shifts within the peatlands, the development of which was largely controlled by the level of groundwater. The uneven nature of the manifestation of catastrophic processes on the studied islands determined their different landscape-forming significance during the Pleistocene-Holocene.
Keywords: retrospective analysis, climatic changes, catastrophic processes, heterochronous, Eastern Asia.
SKRYLNIK G.P. Natural risks, crises and disasters in the territory of the Russian Far East.
Abstract. The spatial-temporal character of natural risks within the Far East north and south is clearly differentiated. In the north of region, under the influence of the increasing winter continentality, there are the “outbreaks” of cryogenesis activity and/or “small” glaciogenesis; relatively slow emergence of the new exogenous image of icescapes; anthropogenic activity causing the thermokarst activation and others. In the southern part, due to the fast, more often pyrogenic, cardinal reconstruction of the soil and vegetation cover in the continental part and “instantaneous” new formed structures and reformations of the coastal landscapes, the abrupt appearance of the exo-endodynamic forms and morphogenetic transformations of geosystems as a result of gigantic floods, tsunami etc. are observed. The natural risks on the territory of the southern Far East are notably higher in frequency and intensity in comparison with areas of the northern part. The emerging further intensification of the natural continentality-oceanicity of climate of the regions under consideration predetermines the directional growth of a role of the dangerous natural processes in the relief formation while enhancement of contrasts between the continental and oceanic effects results in the all-round increase in extremality of natural processes. This causes the approaching of the threshold frames of typical and anomalous phenomena and processes, herewith, the geosystems have time to take to the changeable conditions and directional areal destructions under natural conditions is not noted now. It has been established that the effect of even small tsunami on the Sea of Japan coast has been considerably superior in the morphogenetic significance to integral action of the catastrophic storms. The crisis situations designated by the basic levels of the stability in organization of geosystems revealed by us are predictable to a certain extent that can assist in the sustainable nature management optimization.
Keywords: geosystem, oceanicity, continentality, climatic changes, natural risks, crises, catastrophes, Far East.
PSHENICHNIKOV B.F., PSHENICHNIKOVA N.F., KISELYOVA A.G., RODNIKOVA I.M. Role of Facial Bioclimatic Conditions of Soil Formation in Burozem Geography in Coastal and Insular Landscapes of Primorsky Krai (Southern Far East of Russia).
Abstract. The research focuses on previously unstudied joint effect of monsoon climate, anthropogenically transformed vegetation, and soil weathering on burozem formation in coastal and insular landscapes of Primorsky Krai (southern Far East of Russia). Soils of three sites (southeastern – Petrov Island, Cape Ostrovnoy; central – Russky Island; southern – Bolshoi Pelis Island, Spaseniya Bay coast) are studied in order to provide insight into the variation of burozem morphology and properties (рН, humus content and composition, base saturation) due to the said effect. Burozem subtype spatial distribution is shown to be largely dependent on vegetation character, burozem geomorphic position, and seawater element input to soil. Landscapes of low-grass oak forests (downwind locations with low seawater element input) are characterized by typical burozem with strongly acidic or acidic soil reaction. Typical burozem soil solution has high H+ concentration while Ca++ and Mg++ concentrations are low due to low element input. Typical burozem humus is of humate-fulvate composition with accumulation in the upper part of the profile. Landscapes of steppe oak forests with the well-developed grass layer and landscapes of grass-shrub communities (upwind locations with considerable seawater element input) give rise to dark humus illuvial burozem with soil reaction ranging from acidic to neutral. This burozem soil solution is rich in Ca++ and Mg++ of both biogenic and seawater origin. The burozem has fulvate-humate humus composition and strongly and deeply humuficated soil profile. Landscapes of the fire-damaged (pyrogenically transformed) oak forests present humus illuvial pyrogenic burozem. The burozem humus is also attributed to fulvate-humate type. Landscapes of the depleted oak forests (southeast of Primorsky Krai, upwind coastline locations with active seawater element input by impulverization) present the cinnamon brown humus illuvial burozem. The burozem has strongly acidic soil reaction and low base status. The burozem humus is of humate-fulvate composition, with fulvic acids illuviating actively into the middle part of the profile which results in a bright cinnamon brown color of humus illuvial horizon. As for the coastal and insular landscapes of Primorsky Krai, the combined action of monsoon climate, anthropogenically transformed vegetation, and soil weathering on soil formation processes is the key factor in burozem morphological, physical, and chemical diversity and spatial distribution.
Keywords: landscape, soils, monsoon climate, vegetation, seawater element input, burozem formation.
KHOLODOV A.S., GOLOKHVAST K.S. Results of investigations of the granulometric and elemental composition of the atmospheric precipitation on the territory of the RF Far East reserves.
Abstract. The Russian Far Eastern Federal District, which since 2018 includes the Republic of Buryatia and the Trans-Baikal Territory, has today 62 specially protected natural areas of federal significance, including 30 state nature reserves, 14 national parks, 16 wildlife preserves, and 2 natural monuments. Together with the protected areas of regional significance, the protected natural areas of the Far East occupy more than 100 million hectares. The article summarizes the results of the study of the particle size distribution and composition of airborne particulate matter, carried out in 6 state nature reserves of the Russian Far East: Bastak, Botcha (Botchinsky), Zeya (Zeysky), Nora (Norsky), Sikhote-Alin and Khingan (Khingansky). In five of the studied nature reserves, we collected fresh snow samples, and in the Khingan reserve – conifer needle samples. To obtain the wash out from the needles suitable for further analysis, the needles samples were put in a container with distilled water and treated with ultrasound according to the described procedure. Particle sizes and fractional composition were determined in melted snow samples and ultrasoundtreated washout from needles. PM samples from the Bastak and Botcha reserves were further analyzed for material and elemental composition. It is shown that the atmosphere of reserves located at a distance of less than 100 km from large and medium-sized cities (Bastak, Botcha) is affected by the transfer of technogenic particles. In the atmosphere of these reserves we found nano- and microparticles of metals and their compounds (W, Ti, Fe, Ba, Sn, Zn, Zr, Ce, La, and Ag), as well as increased content of water-soluble compounds of some metals (in particular, zinc). Reserves located at a distance from large cities or close to small settlements (Nora, Zeya, Khingan) contain less technogenic particles in the atmosphere. This is a position article showing that full-scale study of the particle size, material and microelement composition of airborne particulate matter in natural protected areas of the Russian Far East should continue.
Keywords: special protected natural areas, nature reserves, air pollution, cities, technogenic pollution.
MATVEEV V.I., KURNOSOVA (VAZHOVA) A.S., KATAYKINA O.I. Results of monitoring of Lake Khanka in 2016–2018.
Abstract. The results of the hydrochemical investigations of the Lake Khanka in 2016–2018 are presented. In 2015–2016, the surveys were carried out in the period of maximum level of the Lake. From 2017, its level recession was observed. The spatial distribution of the water temperature has generally remained the same each and every year but, at that time, the temperature values have changed. So, for example, the water temperature for the entire length of season in 2018 was higher by 1–2°. The content of nutrients and dissolved oxygen has largely depended on the household waste flow of the Kamen-Rybolov settlement, water flows from the rice checks as well as on flow intensity of the rivers falling into the Lake and production processes. The phytoplankton bloom was observed even in winter under the ice which was confirmed by the high content of the dissolved oxygen (up to 180‰) under the ice layer. At the same time, in winter of 2016 when the Lake level was highest the content of oxygen was slightly lower than in the subsequent years. The similar interannual changes were also noted in the silicon concentrations. In winter, the biological oxygen demand (BOD5 ) was also high (6.53 ml/l), which has pointed to the active destruction of the organic matter. The nutrients have changed their proportions throughout the year due to different sources of their entry during particular seasons. However, their values and proportions had basically no considerable interannual fluctuations. The highest concentrations of the mineral nitrogen and phosphorus were observed in autumn, probably, due to water discharge from the rice paddies. The conclusion was drawn that the high concentrations of nutrients, BOD5 and content of the suspended substances are characteristic of the Lake Khanka and were not caused by rise in its level.
Keywords: Lake Khanka, nutrients, dissolved oxygen, maximum allowable concentration.
SHESTERKIN V.P., SHESTERKINA N.M. Seasonal and spatial variability of the ammonium nitrogen content in the Amur river near Khabarovsk in 2018–2019,
Abstract. The results of observations over the content of ammonium nitrogen in the water of the Amur River near Khabarovsk in 2018–2019 are presented. The maximum values were determined in the right-bank and middle parts of the riverbed in 2018 at the beginning of ice formation (0.37 mg of N/dm3) and in 2019 at the end of ice formation (0.32 mg of N/dm3). The minimum values were observed in winter in the left-bank part of the Amur riverbed due to effect of the regulated rivers of Zeya and Bureya. The gradual decline in the concentration of ammonium nitrogen 1.5 times during the winter season of 2018 and growth 2.4 times in 2019 are shown. The decrease in concentrations 1.9 times during the winter runoff low of 2018–2019 in comparison with period of 2011–2013 was revealed which gives evidence of the water quality improvement in Sungari River and, respectively, in the middle reaches of Amur River. In the period of free channel, the content of ammonium nitrogen is lower in comparison with the same during winter low-water level and does exceed 0.1 mg of N/dm3. The maximum values are observed in the right-bank and middle parts of the riverbed during high water and on the rise of floods formed in the catchments of the Ussuri and Sungari Rivers. It was demonstrated that in the top of the catastrophic flood formed in the Trans-Baikal Territory in 2018 and very strong flood in 2019, the content of ammonium nitrogen did not exceed 0.05 mg of N/dm3. It has been established that the content of ammonium nitrogen in the left-bank part of riverbed and in the peak-flood interval across the whole width of the Amur River is below detection limit.
Keywords: Amur River, ammonium nitrogen, content, seasonal and spatial variability.
DEMYANENKO A.N., KLITSENKO M.V., UKRAINSKY V.N. Research experience of informal street markets in Khabarovsk-city.
Abstract. In the article, the results of field studies of the informal street markets in Khabarovsk intended to reveal and describe their spatial organization are presented. As the test hypothesis, it is anticipated that the street informal markets were incorporated into the social space of the city while the scales, seasonality and assortment of the realizable products as well as behavioral patterns of the exchange participants depend on the structure of the urban space. Because the informal street markets are not observed and fixed by the official statistics, the traditional methods of investigating the informal phenomena – field studies – as well as methods of the city anthropology were used. When describing the social space of Khabarovsk city, the methods of socio-economic and vernacular microzoning were used. In all, 15 inner-city districts of the first level were identified when dividing the social space. It was found that the vernacular districts alternate with lacunas and their boundaries are not of clear nature. In the course of the field studied continued from April, 2019, through July, 2020, more than 100 places of the street trading which were combined into three basic types: permanent, seasonal and episodic. The salesmen in the informal markets were combined into three basic groups: “private traders” (owners of personal subsidiary plots), “summer residents” and “gatherers” (suburban residents realizing in the markets the “gifts of taiga”). Observation of the behavior of particular social groups in the informal markets of different types in different districts attests to the fact that there is really relationship between the behavioral patterns of the market agents and sociocultural environment.
Keywords: informal market, urban space, field researches, Khabarovsk.
Issue 4(4) 2020
Theory and methodology of the geographical research
SYSUEV V.V. Polystructural organization of a landscape: geophysical analysis of geosystems
synergy – p.5
BAKLANOV P.Ya. Territories of Advanced Development as a link in the development of the
territorial socio-economic systems – p.14
TOMSKICH A.A., AHRAMENYA A.A. On the spatial development strategy of the regions of the
Far Eastern Federal District – p.25
Examination of the natural geosystems and their components
BOCHARNIKOV V.N., EGIDAREV E.G. Ecological and geographical assessment of natural
geosystems of the Pacific Russia – p.33
LEBEDEV I.I., NEVSKY V.N. Types of coasts and hazard geomorphic processes on the Russkii
and Shkota islands coasts (Peter the Great Bay, the Sea of Japan) – p.47
SHAKIROVA M.V., SOKOLOVA N.L., MAL’TSEVA E.V., TELEGIN Y.A., KHOLMOGOROV A.O. The features of methane genesis of the gas hydrates in the Far Eastern Seas – p.54
Regional structures of the nature management
BELOV D.V., BROVKO P.F. Recreational potential of the Silinka River basin (Khabarovsk
region) – p.65
On the XI Annual Scientific Assembly of the Association of the Russian geographers-social scientists (ARGSS). MOSHKOV A.V. – p.74
The new in science of sea shores (Review of literature). BROVKO P.F. – p.85
Nadezhda Konstantinovna Khristoforova is 80 years old – p.87
Vladimir Pavlovich Karakin is 75 years old – p.89
In memory of colleagues
Aleksei Aleksandrovich Stepanko. STEPANKO N.G. – p.90
Ivan Ivanovich Krylov. SKRYLNIK G.P., MOISEEVSKAYA E.B. – p.92
SYSUEV V.V. Polystructural organization of a landscape: geophysical analysis of geosystems synergy.
Abstract. Empirical concepts of physical geography enable us to apply the physical laws to describe the landscape structure and functioning. The finitely morainic landscapes of the Valdai Glaciation on the National Park “Valdaisky” territory were investigated. A development of geostructures identified by classical landscape analysis can be described by the parameters of power geophysical fields, mainly gravitation and insolation fields. Selection of a small number of main parameters with extremely clear physical meaning is carried out in accordance with the classical definitions of landscape science. Justification of the number and importance of parameters of elementary pixels and geosystems is carried out when analyzing the results of numerical simulation of the structure of landscapes. Using the method of dichotomic grouping of the relief surface elements by the state parameters (height, slope, horizontal and vertical curvature, dose of direct solar radiation, NDVI), the typological approach to the classification of the natural-territorial complexes (according to homogeneity principle) was realized and the structure of landscapes at a level of natural boundaries was obtained. On the other hand, the functional approach allowed to construct the hierarchy of the water-collecting geosystems by morphometic parameters describing the water redistribution in the gravitation field – slopes, drainage factor, horizontal and vertical curvature. All the classifications are constructed on the single base of data and can be used for different applied tasks. An example of calculating the surface water flow rate is presented and, on their basis, a zoning of the water-collecting geosystems, using the flow time to the control sections. If one uses these parameters the formal mathematical algorithm for identification of elementary and hierarchical units of landforms acquires fundamental geophysical interpretation. In this case the concept of landscape patterns multiplicity is quite relevant. By choosing these or other physical parameters and structure-forming processes we have the opportunity to perform various landscape classifications needed in the applied tasks.
Keywords: physico-mathematical modeling, landscape structure
BAKLANOV P.YA. Territories of Advanced Development as a link in the development of the territorial socio-economic systems.
Abstract. In 2014, the Government of the Russian Federation has established a new tool for the development of the Far East by forming a territory of advanced development (TAD). A specific Federal Law (FL) has been passed. Today, 20 TADs have been determined in all federal units of the Far Eastern Federal District, except for Magadan Oblast. TAD is allocated on a compact area with favorable conditions for socio-economic development and a number of large investment projects, stipulating its conversion into a growth point and input to the development of the region as a whole.
The article provides a general description of the TADs in the Far East with their schematic maps, generalizes the problems that appear at the stage of their creation. A detailed description of one of the first TAD, Nadezhdinskaya TAD, near Vladivostok is given. A long-term development plan, highlighting and justifying the priority economic activities and resident companies was developed for this TAD under the supervision of the author.
Keywords: a territory of advanced development, Far Eastern region, a territorial socio-economic system, priority economic activities, development stages, resident companies, investment projects.
TOMSKICH A.A., AHRAMENYA A.A. On the spatial development strategy of the regions of the Far Eastern Federal District.
Abstract. The article deals with the development strategy of the regions of the Far Eastern Federal District from the perspective of the state programs and spatial factor. The problems of updating the Strategy of socio-economic development of the Far East and the Baikal region for the period up to 2025 and preparing the National program for the development of the Far East until 2035 are raised. In the development of programs, the mechanism of allocation of territorial socio-economic systems is considered as an object of analysis, planning and management. The question is raised about the need for regional development of the territory in the interrelation of “production-education-science-innovation science-business-state”. Attention is drawn to the most important components of the development of the innovative territorial system – science and education. Methods of comparative, statistical, and content analysis are used.
Keywords: National program for the development of the Far East, Far Eastern Federal District, regional development, economic specialization, territorial socio-economic systems, clusters, territories of advanced development.
BOCHARNIKOV V.N., EGIDAREV E.G. Ecological and geographical assessment of natural geosystems of the Pacific Russia.
Abstract. The article is concerned with the results of estimating the actual degree of preservation of the natural geosystems of the Pacific Russia. The scientific approach in this work is based on the guiding principle of the ecosystem approach to wildlife management recommended by the UNO structures. It is said that the Pacific region of Russia (Pacific Russia), in accordance with its geographical position, characteristics, geopolitical specificity and bioresource potential provides the high level of the self-organization of spatial development crucial on a nationwide scale of Russia. It is determined that the specific character of the Far-Eastern regional boundary between the sea and land, extensive transition zones between the low-level sections and mountain landscapes and multivarious character of combinations of the nature management types provide simultaneously division and mergence of the special elements of both natural and anthropogenic origin which allows to consider the whole Far-Eastern region as the special contact area important to conservation of biodiversity and realization of the sustainable nature management within the limits of the whole Eurasia. The authors demonstrate that the natural ecosystems, habitats o animals and plants, biotic communities and populations on the whole territory of the Pacific Russia are under the influence of a number of negative factors which are characterized by both natural and anthropogenic origin. On the basis of geo-information estimates of the anthropogenic dislocation of the biomes, the calculations for strategic zonation pf the regional nature management were carried out and, based on integral mapping, the large natural areas of the Pacific Russia were identified. The regulatory-nature conservation zoning was proposed for action in the administrative subjects of the Far-Eastern Federal District (FEFD) of Russian Federation. The statement whereby the ecologo-geographical zonation can represent the specific type of the conservational classification resting on the comparison of the natural-territorial complexes with different degree of anthropogenic dislocation was proposed for consideration. The quantitative areal comparisons of the officially preserved (system of the specially protected natural reservations) and unprotected (wildness) areas were performed within the Pacific Russia territory and recommendations on the effective implementation of the regional practice and preservation of wild life were formulated. The authors use the geo-informational algorithm for determining the conservational priorities acting on the base of comparison, visualization and cartographic addition of spatial nonuniformity of natural values described earlier in a number of own works of ecologo-geographical subject-matter.
Keywords: Pacific Russia, nature geosystem, geoecological regionalization, biome, wilderness, GIS approach, preservation measures.
LEBEDEV I.I., NEVSKY V.N. Types of coasts and hazard geomorphic processes on the Russkii and Shkota islands coasts (Peter the Great Bay, the Sea of Japan).
Abstract. The subject of the research is dangerous geomorphic processes on the shores of the Russkii and Shkota islands (Peter the Great Bay, the Sea of Japan). The purpose of this work is large-scale mapping of morphogenetic types of coasts and the qualitative estimate of the potential hazard of these processes. As a result of large-scale mapping, four morphogenetic types and 12 subtypes of coasts were identified on Russkii Island, and four types and eight subtypes on Shkota Island. The cartographic legend reflects the degree of coast transformation by marine processes. The main guiding signs for identifying categories are the morphology of the cliff (coast scarp), the morphology of the beach, and the dimension of its material. It was concluded that the abrasion shores with a steep (precipitous) coastal cliff and a narrow, mainly boulder beach (for example, the eastern coasts of the both islands) were most dangerous for the population and engineering buildings. The danger in this case is understood as the high probability of three geomorphic events – rockfalls, landslides, and rapid flooding of beaches and adjacent territories as a result of a storm surge and tsunami. For functional zoning of these islands we must take into account the degree of danger of geomorphic processes in the coastal zone.
Keywords: coastal zone, morphogenetic types of coasts, geomorphic mapping, hazardous geomorphic processes.
SHAKIROVA M.V., SOKOLOVA N.L., MAL’TSEVA E.V., TELEGIN Y.A. The features of methane genesis of the gas hydrates in the Far Eastern Seas.
Abstract. Methane is one of the important representatives of the organic substances in the atmosphere. In addition to enhancing the greenhouse effect, an increase in methane content in the atmosphere can affect the decrease in the ozone concentration in it, and the role of the ozone layer in the life of the planet is important. Gas hydrates are among the most important links in the methane cycle and the accompanying flows of other gases. The ratios of stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) of methane and its homologues are the objective characteristics of hydrate-forming gases and associated gasgeochemical fields. The mass balance ratio of genetically dissimilar compounds is an importance in assessing the isotope effects of natural compounds. The issue of the mass balance effect in the formation of gasgeochemical fields and gas hydrates is considered within the framework of this paper. It is shown that gas hydrate content in the Seas of Okhotsk and Japan should be considered as a manifestation of gas-geochemical zoning of hydrocarbon gases migration from their thermogenic sources based on a source substance, the tectonic factor and seismic activity in the region. In some cases, volcanic activity can also affect the gas composition of gas-hydrate-bearing sediments and gas hydrates. The gas-hydrate content of marginal seas is generally determined by the flows of migration and microbial gases, which are concentrated in the zones of intersections of faults on the sides of tectonic deflections. Signs of thermogenic fluids and multi-level occurrence of gas hydrates indicate that they are renewable and can be used as important indicators of the methane and carbon cycle. The main sources of migration of hydrocarbon gases are oil and gas-bearing and coalbearing strata, and in the zones of permeability there is a contribution of deep components.
Keywords: methane, gas hydrates, methane sources, mass-balance effect, the Seas of Far East.
BELOV D.V., BROVKO P.F. Recreational potential of the Silinka River basin (Khabarovsk region).
Abstract. The outdoor recreational resources provide a basis for development of the tourist activity in the region. Commonly, they are considered based on the administrative units (Krais, Oblasts, municipalities). For small territories, it is handier to study them within the frameworks of the river basins where the rivers and other watercourses are the connecting links between the different resources and kinds of anthropogenic activity. By the example of Sikinka River, the recreation potential of such basin is considered. The basic recreation objects of the territory under study which are combined in three groups (mountain skiing, trekking and beach recreation) are described. For the object in each group, the assessment of favorableness of its recreation use was performed under a common methodology. The transport accessibility of each object was estimated by the average time expenditure for moving in transport with the consideration of its speed. The comparative comprehensive assessment of the attractiveness of the recreation objects was carried out with consideration of the aesthetic evaluation by parameters of contrast, mosaic structure, species diversity, unique character, exoticism and comfort. The value qualities of natural objects (unique character, typicality and exoticism) were also taken into consideration. The advanced kinds of tourism were laid down for the Silinka River basin.
Keywords: recreation resources, natural conditions, attractiveness of landscapes, ecological tourism, Silinka River, Khabarovsk region.
Issue 1(5) 2021
To our readers – p.5
50 years of Pacific Geographical Institute, FEB RAS
BAKLANOV P.YA., MOSHKOV A.V. Economic and geographical studies at the Pacific Geographical Institute – p.6
Examination of the territorial socioeconomic structures and their components
AVDEEV Yu.A. Vladivostok agglomeration: problems and options for its development – p.21
RODOMANSKAYA S.A. Management cycle of food security of a territory: assessment of application of geoecological knowledge – p.31
ZANGEEVA N.R., BATOMUNKUEV V.S., AYUSHEEVA V.G. Spatial analysis of the urbanization development in the regions of Asiatic Russia – p.42
MISHINA N.V., ERMOSHIN V.V. Administrative-territorial division of the South of the Russian Far East in the pre-Soviet period (1850–1922): historicо-geographical aspect – p.49
Regional structures of the nature management
KNYAZEV Yu.P. World natural and cultural-natural heritage of China: current state, problems, development prospects – p.63
Examination of the natural geosystems and their components
MUZYCHENKO T.K., MASLOVA M.N. Transboundary analysis of the land cover in Razdolnaya river basin – p.70
SERYODKIN I.V. Seasonal movements of brown bears in the Middle Sikhote-Alin – p.78
60 years to Vladimir Valeryevich Aramilev. E.B. Moiseevskaya – p.87
70 years to Aleksandr Mikhailovich Panichev. E.B. Moiseevskaya – p.88
70 years to Natalya Grigoryevna Stepanko. E.B. Moiseevskaya – p.89
In memory of colleague
Vladimir Pavlovich Mosunov. T.I. Zabortseva – p.90
Mark Stepanovich Karasev. E.B. Moiseevskaya – p.92
Instructions for authors – p.94
BAKLANOV P.Ya., MOSHKOV A.V. Economic and geographical studies at the Pacific Geographical Institute.
Abstract. The article describes the main stages in the development of economic - geographical research at the Pacific Institute of Geography (now Pacific Geographical Institute) since its organization. The authors identified five such stages and presented the most important results of economic and geographical research accomplished in their laboratory of spatial-economic structures for 50 years. Scientific directions of these researches were determined by the general tasks solved by the Pacific Geographical Institute, in first turn, comprehensive forecasting and geographical research of different-scale geosystems of the Far East of Russia in the ‘land-ocean’ contact zone. The selection of the research stages was based on changes in the topics of the laboratory’s research work. For a long time its main topic was in the studies of multi-ranked territorial and economic structures of the Far East, and geographical factors of their development including natural resource and geopolitical ones. The main research activities of the laboratory staff at different stages included theoretical and methodological studies of geographic space and different-ranked spatial systems; geographical and geopolitical factors in the formation of multi-ranked territorial and economic structures, including transboundary and aqua-territorial ones; working out of proposals to the state programs of the sustainable development of regions; methods of researching the productive-natural relations in local and regional territorial-production systems; assessing the territorial combinations of natural resources; studying the features of the transformation of territorial and sectoral structures; zoning the territory and coastal waters of the Far East, etc. Separate economic and geographical studies are also of great practical importance. In first turn, there are proposals developed in the laboratory for strategies and programs of the socio-economic development of the Far East, Primorsky Kray, Vladivostok agglomeration and other territories.
Keywords: economic-geographical research, spatial systems, natural-resource and territorial-economic structures, sustainable development, productive-natural relations, zoning, territorial organization of production, geographical and geopolitical factors.
AVDEEV Yu.A. Vladivostok agglomeration: problems and options for its development.
Abstract. The transformations of the territorial organization of Primorsky Krai, formed under the previous socio-economic conditions, and which have significantly accelerated during the years of preparations of Vladivostok for the APEC Summit, are observed. The increase in infrastructural potential, higher mobility of the population, fundamental changes in economic specialization, the continuing severity of demographic and environmental problems, all that sets a task of increasing the efficiency of socio-economic ties between settlements, and thereby improving the life of the population. The agglomeration ties of Vladivostok with its immediate surroundings have been developing for more than a decade, but the events of recent years significantly intensify interaction and push the boundaries of the agglomeration out. The city’s development is influenced now by its new role in the international relations of the Asia-Pacific region (APR). At the same time, its lag behind the most developed cities in this macro-region of the world has become more noticeable. In this regard, there is a long term task to begin the formation of a city of world (global) significance in the east of Russia, a future metropolis by expanding the current agglomeration, giving it the rights of a federal district, as well as clarifying the priorities of economic development and strengthening integration ties in the APR. The international environment close to Vladivostok is an important factor in the development of the city agglomeration. Citizens of the Russian Federation should be considered as the main source of population growth, but efforts are needed to ensure the attractiveness of this territory for citizens from other states. Student youth both in Russia and nearby foreign countries should be regarded as an important factor stabilizing the demographic situation in the region.
Keywords: Vladivostok agglomeration, eastern policy, strategic goals, the status of a constituent entity of the federation, population, mobility
RODOMANSKAYA S.A. Management cycle of food security of a territory: assessment of application of geoecological knowledge
Abstract. The relevance of these studies is due to the insufficient elaboration of the mechanism formanaging food processes in the field of ensuring food security of the territory, which significantly reduces the effectiveness of their regulation and, in turn, leads to the irrational use of resources (natural, labor, etc.) and the emergence of negative consequences and threats. Within the framework of these studies, a management cycle of food security of the territory has been developed in the form of a structural and functional model, which, along with the subject and object blocks, consists of a complex of interconnected subsystems. As a method for assessing conditions, the use of modeling and foresight methods, an integral assessment of the level of food security and methods of strategic planning, in particular the situational method of SWOT analysis, is proposed. The assessment of the level of food security at the regional level is supposed to be carried out using generally accepted criteria and indicators of self-sufficiency, independence (dependence), sufficiency, availability and quality of products. The basis of the modeling method in the cycle is its integral part – the presence of conditions for checking the situation, which contributes not only to the study of the current situation in the food system, but also makes it possible to predict the development of this system under given conditions in the short, medium and long term. The article defines the main content, meaning and functional purpose of the subsystems, which together create all the prerequisites for conducting system monitoring, developing management decisions to enhance food security resulting from the iterative food process, to determine the current situation in ensuring food security and possible coordination of actions in the sphere of ensuring food security. The developed cycle is of practical importance in choosing mutually acceptable measures and actions to eliminate or mitigate critical situations in the field of food security or to enhance food security. In this cycle, for each subsystem, the specificity of geographical knowledge of natural-social relations, united by the spatial aspect of the study, is determined. In conclusion, it is noted that the logical interconnection of subsystems in the cycle made it possible to obtain a holistic idea of the needs of managing the food system of the territory in geoecological knowledge, which have expert and substantive significance.
Keywords: food security, territorial level, management cycle, subsystems of cycle, geoecological knowledge.
ZANGEEVA N.R., BATOMUNKUEV V.S., AYUSHEEVA V.G. Spatial analysis of the urbanization development in the regions of Asiatic Russia.
Abstract. Russian urbanization, in its content and regional development, is an extremely relevant subject of scientific analysis. Currently, the prospects of formation and development of large urban agglomerations in Asian Russia are of great interest, for which cause the problems arise due to the settlement system, which in its spatial aspect is very heterogeneous. The administrative-territorial division of Asiatic Russia includes subjects of three federal districts: Ural, Siberian and Far Eastern. The regions differ between themselves in the degree of development and the level of socio-economic development and urbanization. The main areas of population concentration are large cities, the leading transport hubs of the Trans-Siberian Railway. At the same time, most of the territories in the Asian part of the country are sparsely populated. As a rule, these are peripheral areas, extremely distant from the main transport axis, fully or partially lost their specialization and which today do not have sustainable socio-economic prospects for development and are intensively losing their population. The low level of urbanization of the eastern regions threatens the national security of the country. In this regard, the analysis of urbanization processes in the Asian part of Russia deserves special significance in order to identify modern features of transformation of spatial development. To understand the macro-regional situation, the authors were founded on the generalization of the estimation results of the level of urbanization, and socio-economic analysis of major regional centers of the Asian part of Russia and the human development index. The study identified the main factors in the transformation of modern spatial development in the region.
Keywords: urbanization, Asian Russia, transformation, spatial development, regional development, urban population.
MISHINA N.V., ERMOSHIN V.V. Administrative-territorial division of the South of the Russian Far East in the pre-Soviet period (1850–1922): historicо-geographical aspect.
Abstract. We analyze the spatial changes and quantitative assessment of the main units of the administrative-territorial division (ATD) of the South of the Russian Far East (RFE) in the period from the middle of the XIX century until 1922. Restoration of chronology of the most significant changes of the regional ATD allowed us to identify and characterize 4 periods of ATD development (1856–1883, 1884–1905, 1906–1917, 1918–1922). A significant intersection of these periods with the stages of resettlement movement and population dynamics of the RFE indicates a close connection between the economic development of this territory and its administrative division changes in the pre-Soviet period. On the basis of historical cartographic materials, we compiled schemes of the administrative division of the South of the RFE for 1900–1902 and 1910–1914, and calculated the areas of such administrative units as oblasts and okrugs/uyezds. We also created database of area data for the same ATD units from literature and statistical materials. Comparative analysis of the area data obtained cartographically by the authors and from other historical sources showed similarity of values for the oblasts, while estimations for the okrugs/uyezds have significant differences. We also found that before 1909, due to inconsistencies in the use of statistical data, the total area of the Primorskaya Oblast in some sources was overestimated by 46 thousand km2, and after 1909 by almost 150 thousand km2.
Keywords: Administrative-territorial division, the South of the Russian Far East, Primorskaya Oblast, Amurskaya Oblast, Trans-Baikal Oblast, administrative-territorial units.
KNYAZEV Yu.P. World natural and cultural-natural heritage of China: current state, problems, development prospects.
Abstract. The analysis of the location of the World Natural and Cultural-Natural (Mixed) Heritage objects on the territory of the PRC according to the criteria of the natural heritage of UNESCO was carried out. Of the 13 natural heritage sites of the PRC, nine ones meet the VII criterion of heritage, possessing picturesque landscapes. This is followed by X and VIII criteria (five and four objects, respectively). Least of all objects (two) meet the IX criterion. All objects corresponding to the criterion of natural beauty (VII) are located in mountainous or foothill landscapes. A special group of landscapes includes the «Holy Mountains», the cult centers of Confucianism («Wuyishan Mountains») and Taoism («Mount Tai shan»).
Among the objects meeting the criterion of paleontological, geological or geomorphological value (VIII), key paleontological territories are represented by the «Chendjiang Archaeological Reserve» reflecting the course of the «Cambrian explosion». Karst landscapes are expressed in the reserves «Karst deposits of South China» and «Danxia Mountains», which are considered the largest single karst formation on Earth. Mountain erosional landscapes of the National Park «Three Parallel Rivers» are recognized as the standard of alpine mountain building.
Of the heritage sites meeting the criterion of natural landscape diversity (IX), only the «shelters of life» in the Pleistocene not affected by the Quaternary mountain glaciations, are represented.
Among the World Heritage sites, according to the criterion of biological diversity (X), only mountain landscapes with a high level of endemism are reserved. The level of endemism in the organic world reaches at least one third in the organic world. The key bird area is the «Migratory Bird Sanctuary on the Yellow Sea Coast – Bohai Bay», which is of planetary importance for avifauna using the East Asian migratory route.
The problems and prospects for the development of their network are analyzed. It is shown that mainly mountainous and intrazonal landscapes are reserved. Zonal landscapes are not represented in the heritage list due to the high level of anthropogenic development.
Keywords: World heritage, protected landscape, natural heritage criteria, specially protected natural area, national park.
MUZYCHENKO T.K., MASLOVA M.N. Transboundary analysis of the land cover in Razdolnaya river basin.
Abstract. The transboundary Razdolnaya river basin is nearly evenly split up between Primorsky Krai of Russian Federation and Heilongjiang and Jilin provinces of People’s Republic of China. The Chinese and the Russian parts of the transboundary river have developed independently of each other. Therefore, the two have a different land cover and land use structure. The analysis of land cover and land use structure is of utmost importance for the understanding the modern state of land development and the possibilities of its future development. Using the remote sensing data, such as Sentinel-2 and Landsat 8 satellite imagery, the land cover and land use map of the Razdolnaya transboundary river basin for 2019 has been composed by means of the ArcMap 10.5 software package. According to V.A. Nikolaev’s geoecological classification of landscapes, we have identified 12 land types: forests, meadows, shrubs and woodlands, agricultural lands, unused agricultural lands, rice fields, unused rice fields, built-up areas, reforestation lands, logging, quarries, and bodies of water. We have provided area coverage for each type of land of the whole transboundary basin, and for the Russian and Chinese parts. According to the results of computer-aided visual deciphering and automatic deciphering, forests are the most common land use type in the basin. In the Chinese part of the basin, forests dominate over the other types of land. Agricultural lands and meadows have assumed narrow and linear shapes. Built-up areas have less coverage here than in the Russian part of the basin. However, the coverage of logging and reforestation lands is considerably larger than in the Russian part of the basin. In the Russian part of the basin, forests co-dominate with the agricultural lands and meadows. In some areas of this part of the basin forests disappear almost completely. The Russian part of the basin also has the larger coverage of shrubs and woodlands, unused agricultural lands, rice fields and unused rice fields. The coverage of quarries is roughly equal in both parts of the basin.
Keywords: transboundary territories, land use and land cover structure, Razdolnaya River basin, cartographic analysis, remote sensing.
SERYODKIN I.V. Seasonal movements of brown bears in the Middle Sikhote-Alin.
Abstract. On the territory of the Far East, the brown bear (Ursus arctos) plays an important role in the ecosystems and, being valuable hunting species, has a great practical value for humans. The space use including the seasonal movements of specimens is an important ecological characteristic of population. The seasonal movements of 12 adult males, seven adult females, one young male and one young female of brown bears were evaluated in the Middle Sikhote-Alin in 1993–2011 with the use of radio- and GPS-telemetry. For description of seasonal movements, the linear distance between two locations or sum of linear displacements between the successive locations of specimens were used. With the purpose of marking, the animals were caught by the Aldrich foot snares on the forest trails and with the use of baits, immobilized using the remote injector and anesthetics. Significant linear movements of bears were observed in all seasons of the non-denning period and the largest of them reached 111.5 km. Seasonal movements of males were more pronounced than those of females. In the post-denning period, bears made passages from dens to spring feeding stations. In the summer season, the movements were related to feeding and reproductive behavior. In autumn, during the hyperphagia, the bears moved actively in search of fattening feed: Korean pine nuts (Pinus koraiensis) and Mongolian oak acorns (Quercus mongolica). In the pre-denning period, bears made passages to den places. The telemetry studies have broadened the knowledge of the brown bear ecology in the Sikhote-Alin, which is important to scientifically grounded management of its population.
Keywords: radiocollars, Sikhote-Alin Reserve, space use, telemetry, Ursus arctos.
Issue 2(6) 2021
50 years of Pacific Geographical Institute, FEB RAS
BROVKO P.F., ZONOV Yu.B. Development of geographical education and scientific research at the Far Eastern State University – p.5
RAZJIGAEVA N.G., GANZEY L.A., GREBENNIKOVA T.A., BAZAROVA V.B., BELYANIN P.S., LYASHCHEVSKAYA M.S., MAKAROVA T.P., MOKHOVA L.M., BELYANINA N.I., KORNYUSHENKO T.P. Paleogeographical Researches in the Pacific Geographical Institute – p.15
Examination of the territorial socioeconomic structures and their components
BALINA T.A., MELNIKOV E.R., NIKOLAEV R.S., STOLBOV V.A., CHEKMENEVA L.Yu. The priority development area as a mechanism of regional management – p.33
Examination of the natural geosystems and their components
KONDRATYEVA L.M., GOLUBEVA E.M., LITVINENKO Z.N. Biogeochemical assessment of changes in water composition after a large landslide in winter – p.43
LUPAKOV S.Yu., GUBAREVA T.S., SHAMOV V.V., RUBTSOV A.V., GARTSMAN B.I., BUGAETS A.N., OMELKO A.M. Aplicability of sap flow data in hydrological modeling – p.54
SHULKIN V.M.. Anthropogenic and natural factors controlling the composition of bottom sediments of the Vaskovskoe Lake, Eastern Sihote-Alin, Primorye – p.65
The Round Table of the Scientific Conference «Geosystems of Northeast Asia: nature, population, territorial economies». BAKLANOV P.Ya., MOSHKOV A.V., TKACHENKO G.G. – p.74
Pacific Science Association – 100th Anniversary. SHTETS M.B. – p.76
60 years to Sergey Vladimirovich Osipov. MOISEEVSKAYA E.B. – p.80
65 years to Vladimir Nikolayevich Nevsky. MOISEEVSKAYA E.B. – p.82
80 years to Rimma Vasilyevna Vakchnenko. MOISEEVSKAYA E.B. – p.83
In memory of colleagues
Gleb Ivanovich Khudyakov. GAVRILOV A.A., MOISEEVSKAYA E.B. – p.85
Aleksey Mikhailovich Korotky. RAZJIGAEVA N.G., GANZEY L.A. – p.87
Sergey Stepanovich Ganzey. MISHINA N.V., YERMOSHIN V.V. – p.88
BROVKO P.F., ZONOV Yu.B. Development of geographical education and scientific research at the Far Eastern State University.
Abstract. The Department of Geography, which trains specialists in geography at the Far Eastern State University, has passed a difficult path of its formation and development. The first geographical courses were developed at the beginning of the 20th century at the Oriental Institute at the Department of Ethnography and Geography, and at the Department of Politics, Legislation and Economic Order. In the 1920s, the disciplines of the geographical cycle at the Far Eastern State University were included in the curricula of the agricultural, technical and oriental faculties. Professor A.A. Polovinkin is the author of the widely known in the country textbooks on physical geography for secondary schools. From the first days of the creation of the Department of Physical Geography by Professor V.I. Lymarev in 1964, the teaching staff, along with the educational process, joined the complex geographical studies of the nature and features of the socio-economic development of the Far East regions. Expeditionary works were carried out in Chukotka, Kamchatka, on Sakhalin, Kuril and Shantar islands, in Primorye. The laboratory and analytical base was formed, the first results of geological and geomorphological interpretation of aerial photographs for the compilation of morphodynamic maps appeared. The works on landscape mapping of the areas of the active volcanism appeared. New author’s courses on physical and economic geography of the Far East and adjacent regions were developed. The considerable attention of the department was paid to the development of students’ research works. Their participation in annual expeditions to the remote and hard-to-reach areas, conducted under the guidance of teachers and staff, long-term educational and industrial practices, various types of lectures, seminars and extracurricular activities contributed to the formation of the professional qualities of graduated geographers. The connection of the educational process with the scientific research carried out by the department in the background of wide cooperation with academic institutions was the main peculiarity of students’ training.
Keywords: geographic education, integrated geographic research, educational process, educational and practices, Department of Physical Geography, Fundamental Research Laboratory of the Far Eastern Seas Shelf, Faculty of Geophysics, Institute of the Environment.
RAZJIGAEVA N.G., GANZEY L.A., GREBENNIKOVA T.A., BAZAROVA V.B., BELYANIN P.S., LYASHCHEVSKAYA M.S., MAKAROVA T.R., MOKHOVA L.M., BELYANINA N.I., KORNYUSHENKO T.V. Paleogeographical Researches in the Pacific Geographical Institute.
Abstract. The authors present the results of the researches of the laboratory of paleogeography and geomorphology of PGI FEB RAS in 2017–2020. New data include the study of the development of continental and island geosystems of the South Far East and the response of their components to short-term climate changes in the Late Pleistocene-Holocene. Paleoecological changes with a high temporal resolution have been restored in the middle mountains of the Eastern Sikhote-Alin. New data were obtained on the development of geosystems of the coast of the Sea of Japan, the role of zonal and azonal natural factors in their development was determined. The stages of development of landscapes of the platobasalt genus are highlighted. The conditions of sedimentation and formation of floodplain landscapes of the Khanka Lake plain were reconstructed. Detailed reconstructions of the island landscapes development for the south of Primorye have been made. For the south of the Far East, a synthesis of landscape changes in the last intense warming – Medieval Warm Period of the Holocene (VII-XIII centuries) was made. The manifestation of natural disasters and their space-time scale were analyzed. The investigations aimed at assessment of the tsunami hazard on the coast of eastern Primorye were continued. For the Kuril Islands, the most powerful tsunamis have been identified, which can be considered as candidates for megatsunami. Transformation of landscapes and a human impact on landscapes were also discussed. Geoarchaeological studies were also carried out in the intra-continental regions (Western Transbaikalia, Eastern Mongolia).
Keywords: retrospective analysis, climatic changes, catastrophical processes, South Far East.
BALINA T.A., MELNIKOV E.R., NIKOLAEV R.S., STOLBOV V.A., CHEKMENEVA L.Yu. The priority development area as a mechanism of regional management.
Abstract. The article examines one of the types of territories with a special economic status - the territory of advanced socio-economic development (TASED) as a mechanism of regional management in the course of the Russian economy renovation. The theory of the cyclical development of the world economy serves as the theoretical and methodological basis of this study to reveal the development patterns of old-industrial regions. Experiencing stagnation and degradation in traditional industries, such regions are looking for new impulses for their development. Some of them are declared as priority development areas. The scientific approach implemented in the work is based on the concept of polarized development, which involves identifying “growth poles” (points) with high potential and applying of adequate efforts for their development. The main attention focuses on the role of the advanced development areas as a scientific basis for making regional policy and as a modern tool for the development of regional socioeconomics. A dynamic analysis of the TASED creation in Russia has revealed current trends in their formation mainly from east to west. The authors consider the problems in the TASED formation by examples of two mono-industrial urban settlements in the Perm region – Chusovoy and Nytva. The demographic data used as indicators to reflect effectiveness of the TASED formation show that the socio-economic situation remains unfavorable, and the natural population decline accompanied by a noticeable migration outflow. The obtained results indicate the need to strengthen regional policy in order to preserve and increase human capital. The mechanism of transformation of problem regions into TASEDs can become the instrument of strategic planning and territorial management to shift the emphasis on effective social orientation of the economy. At the first stage of forming the “growth poles” in mono-industrial towns of the Perm Region, it is necessary to solve the employment problem, to prioritize not economic, but social tasks. It also needs a creation of the conditions for any type of economic activity in order to prevent the social tension growth and labor forces outflow. It is advisable to form a “knowledge economy”, to create a system “science - business – power”. The local socioeconomic development requires long-term, painstaking and purposeful efforts, coordinating actions of regional and municipal authorities. TASED has prospects for becoming an effective mechanism in territorial management, a “growth pole” in the old industrial region.
Keywords: territorial management, human capital, territory of advanced socio-economic development (TASED), Perm Territory, mono-industrial town, growth pole, old-industrial regions.
KONDRATYEVA L.M., GOLUBEVA E.M., LITVINENKO Z.N. Biogeochemical assessment of changes in water composition after a large landslide in winter.
Abstract. For the first time in December 2018, at a temperature of 32°C below zero, on the steep bank of the Bureiskoe Reservoir (Far East, Russia) a landslide occurred. Insular, discontinuous, and continuous permafrost on the catchment basin of the reservoir is recorded. A landslide with a total volume of 24.5 million m3 completely blocked the former channel of the Bureya River. It created a threat to the operation of the Bureya Hydro-electric Power Station and flooding of settlements. Blasting operations with use of trinitrotoluene and shaped charges with hexogen were carried out for restoring the flow. Methanol and methylated benzene derivatives were detected in water by gas chromatography; its concentration increased after the water was drained through the landslide body. In the water of the artificial channel, decrease in the lithogenic elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb) content and an increase in the mercury concentration were recorded. Among the volatile organic substances, a significant portion belonged to the products of transformation of high molecular natural compounds that take part in the processes of methanogenesis and methanotrophy (methanol, acetates, and xylenes) and toluene, the main intermediate of trinitrotoluene. The studies of the elemental composition of water in the zone of influence of the landslide before and after the blasting operations were carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry on an ICP-MS ELAN-9000 (Perkin Elmer). Below the landslide body, an increase in the content of Al, Fe, W, Cr and Pb is noted. The most significant changes in water quality occurred after the blasting operations. In the water of the artificial channel, a sharp decrease in the content of elements (Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb) and an increase in the concentration of mercury have been recorded.
Keywords: landslide, permafrost zone, reservoir, volatile organic compounds, heavy metals.
LUPAKOV S.Yu., GUBAREVA T.S., SHAMOV V.V., RUBTSOV A.V., GARTSMAN B.I., BUGAETS A.N., OMELKO A.M. Aplicability of sap flow data in hydrological modeling.
Abstract. The article deals with the experience of applying an alternative method for quantifying evapotranspiration volume as input to the hydrological model to simulate runoff of a small catchment located in the upper reaches of the Ussuri River. In the warm period of 2019 at the territory of the Verkhneussuriyskiy station of the Federal Scientific Center of the East Asia Terrestrial Biodiversity (FEB RAS), a set of field measurements was carried out. The measured data were used to calibrate the HBV hydrological model (Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenbalansavdelning). In addition to traditional water-balance measurements, there was assessed the evapotranspiration rate based on sap flow measurements eliminating other parts of water losses. The Tissue Heat Balance technique was applied to measure a sap flow in some individual trees. After that, the obtained data were scaled up to the catchment area (3.1 km2). It is shown that in warm and dry weather conditions, the volume of daily total evaporation from a small catchment can reach 8.5 ths.m3 that is 5-6 times more than the river runoff volume over the same period. During the rainfall events, the transpiration rate in trees decreases to almost zero. To compare the obtained results with the modelled ones, the potential evapotranspiration was also calculated based on well-known Penman-Monteith’s and L. Oudin’s methods that forced HBV model as input. Based on hydrological simulations, these methods overestimated the actual daily evaporation volume up to 2 times in comparison with the sap flow data, and the difference for the warm season reaches 100 mm and more. No reliable relationship was found between the calculated values of daily evaporation rate and the conventionally “measured” ones. Basically, runoff simulations quality was improved while using evapotranspiration volume assessed with the sap flow data. We conclude that water balance via HBV simulations is quite different depending on applied evapotranspiration method. In this case, overestimated volume of evapotranspiration by Penman-Monteith and L. Oudin methods leads to excessive water extraction from the HBV soil moisture storage. If it’s actually not correct, long-term runoff simulations would result in wrong water balance and error accumulation.
Keywords: sap flow, water balance, HBV model, evapotranspiration, catchment, field measurements.
SHULKIN V.M. Anthropogenic and natural factors controlling the composition of bottom sediments of the Vaskovskoe Lake, Eastern Sihote-Alin, Primorye.
Abstract. The vertical distribution of Pb, Cd, Zn, Hg, Cu, Ni, Fe, Mn, Corg and the rate of sedimentation by 210Pb in the upper 50 cm layer of bottom sediments of the Vaskovskoe Lake has been studied. Vaskovskoe Lake is located on the eastern slope of Sihote-Alin range. It existed under the influence of the mining industry at the Rudnaya River Valley. The rate of sedimentation in the central part of the lake is set at 2.7±0.26 mm/year, which allows estimating the change in the chemical composition of bottom sediments over the last 160-180 years. The top 8 cm layer, accumulated after 1983, is enriched by Pb, Cd in 4.8-8.1 times, In the combination with data on the production and processing of polymetallic ores, it indicates the atmospheric deposition of technogenic dust material as the main source of pollution of the lake sediments. It has been found that even with a significant two-fold reduction in production and emissions in the 1990s, pollution levels of sediments remain high, and further monitoring is required to characterize the geosystem’s ability to self-purification. It is shown that the heavy metal concentration normalized by Fe, taking into account variations in the gran size composition and content of Fe hydroxides, allows us to track not only the intense mining production in the 70s and 80s of the twentieth century, but also the early beginning of economic activity at the Rudnaya R. valley at the end of the nineteenth century. It has been revealed that unlike heavy metals the concentration of organic matter (Corg) in the bottom sediments reflects the change in natural and climatic conditions at the catchment, the ratio of autochtonuos and allochtonuos sources of Corg and changes in the trophic status of the lake.
Keywords: mining influence, heavy metals, lake sediments, pollution, 210Pb dating.
Issue 3(7) 2021
50 years of Pacific Geographical Institute, FEB RAS
BAKLANOV P.Ya., YERMOSHIN V.V., GANZEY K.S. Stages of Development of the Pacific Geographical Institute, FEB RAS – p.5
NEVSKY V. N., SKRYLNIK G. P. Climatic geomorphological research at the Pacific Geographical Institute, FEB RAS – p.19
GAVRILOV A.A. Endogenous geomorphology at the Pacific Geographical Institute research history – p.31
KOSHKAREV A.V. On the early history of Far Eastern geoinformatics and thematic mapping – p.43
Examination of the territorial socioeconomic structures and their components
DEMYANENKO A.N. Features of the formation of the urban space of the Khabarovsk agglomeration – p.51
Examination of the natural geosystems and their components
SIMOKON M.V., KOVEKOVDOVA L.T., NAREVICH I.S. Trace elements in water quality assessment of Lake Khanka – p.64
The Round table “Eurasian vectors of contemporary economic activity of Russia: Pacific Geopolitical and Geoeconomic Projection“ BAKLANOV P.YA., DRUZJININ A.G., MOSHKOV A.V. – p.75
Discussions, summaries and reviews
A review of the monograph by A.G. Druzhinin “Eurasian priorities of Russia. The view of the
geographer-social scientist. SHVEDOV V.G. – p.78
75 years to academician Petr Yakovlevich Baklanov. MOSHKOV A.V. – p.81
In memory of colleagues
To the 90th anniversary of Andrei Petrovich Kapitsa. Editorial board of the Journal – p.85
To memory of Boris Viktorovich Ezjov. NEVSKY V.N. – p.91
BAKLANOV P.Ya., YERMOSHIN V.V., GANZEY K.S. Stages of Development of the Pacific Geographical Institute, FEB RAS.
Abstract. Half a century ago, in October 1971, the Pacific Geographical Institute (PGI) was established in the system of the Far Eastern Scientific Center of the USSR Academy of Sciences. A.P. Kapitsa, a prominent scientist, corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences, was a director-organizer of the Institute. The article describes the stages of the PGI development as well as the main results of its fundamental and applied geographical researches, from the issues of regional geographical forecasting to studying the structure and dynamics of geosystems of various ranks, taking into account natural and anthropogenic factors, territorial structures of the economy and population settlement. A geographic assessment of demographic and migration processes, health of the population in the region was carried out. Fundamental paleogeographic, geomorphological, biogeographic and geochemical studies were conducted. The methods of field research, geoinformation technologies, modeling of geosystems and their components were developed. The study of regional natural resources management, including transboundary and coastal-marine ones, has become the pivotal direction of comprehensive geographical research in the Institute. Much attention was paid to field research methods. At the first stages of the formation of PGI, the Smychka field research station (in the Dalnegorsk district of Primorye) and a scientific and experimental station at the mouth of the Kolyma River (Northern Yakutia) have been established. Both stations continue to work successfully. Expeditionary methods of studying nature, population and economy, and space information are widely used in its geographical research. A large number of maps and atlases have been compiled, including those of Kuril Islands (together with the Institute of Geography of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow), Primorsky Krai (with a number of other organizations), etc. Significant scientific and practical conferences on broad geographic topics are held annually, including the annual conferences of young scientists (together with the Far Eastern Federal University). In 2020, the Institute’s scientific journal “Pacific Geography” was started to publish. Among the PGI directors at different times were famous scientists - A.P. Kapitsa, Sh.Sh. Gasanov, G.I. Khudyakov, P.Ya. Baklanov, V.V. Ermoshin. At present, K.S. Ganzey a young scientist heads the institute.
Key words: Pacific Institute of Geography, stages of development, geographical forecast, Far Eastern region, geosystem, natural resources management, geographic information systems.
NEVSKY V.N., SKRYLNIK G.P. Climatic geomorphological research at the Pacific Geographical Institute, FEB RAS. (Main directions and achievements, 1971–2021).
Abstract. In the article, the main stages in the development of morphoclimatic research at the Pacific Geographical Institute since its organization are characterized. The most important results of the thematic studies obtained by the scientists of the laboratory of dynamic geomorphology practically within 50 years are presented. The basic scientific field of laboratory is “climatic” (“exogenous”) one being the basis of dynamic geomorphology. From the onset, the works were committed to examination of basic tendencies of the developing the physico-geographical provinces of the southern Far East; dynamics of Chukotka permafrost; specificity of developing the South SikhoteAlin slopes. Later on, the studies were concerned with effect of the climate and its changes on the relief, genesis and localization of the dangerous exogenous geomorphological processes, assessment of the secondary factors of the reliefforming (biogenic and anthropogenic) and geomorphological mapping. It has been established that the Far East is located at the steadily active transition-contact zone of two largest structures of the Earth exerting, in the process of interaction, the powerful system-forming influences within the frameworks of the temperate, subarctic and arctic climatic belts. To manifestation of the continentality and oceanicity interactions in the Far East, the distinct spatial differentiation (minimal in the central areas of continents and oceans and maximal in the transboundary ones) is appropriate. By their impact on the geosystems of region, the single-scale processes and phenomena serve as the typical, extremal or catastrophic ones and can be considered as the indicators of the geoecological risks. It has been established that the relation between the values of continentality and oceanicity determines the probability of origin and development of the related anomalous processes and catastrophes respectively. A number of the results of the performed studies are of practical importance, such as large-scale thematic maps and schematic maps, standard recommendations for the technology of environmental protection works, land reclamation and the safety of functioning of urban areas, as well as special geographical expertise for general geographic, ecological and natural resource purposes.
Keywords: Far-Eastern region, geomorphological studies, exogenous forms and processes, morphostructures, natural risks, geomorphological mapping, geographical expertise.
GAVRILOV A.A. Endogenous Geomorphology at the Pacific Geographical Institute research history.
Abstract. The principal results of large-scale geomorphological and morphotectonic investigations within territory of the Far East of Russia, which were carried out in the period of 1979–2005, are considered. It was shown that numerous publications of this time contain important methodological provisions, new data on the structure and development of mountain constructions and intermountain depressions, morphostructural mapping, geomorphological, cosmogeological indication of the structural elements of the region, etc. It is noted that the main achievements are associated with the study of the relief-forming role of focal systems and fault zones that control the processes of energy and mass transfer in the bowels of the Earth and correlated with them the phenomena of tectogenesis, magmatism, metamorphism and ore formation. The main feature of the work is an integrated approach to the analysis and synthesis of geomorphological, geological, geophysical data and remote sensing materials from space. Unlike traditional geomorphology, which concentrates the attention of researchers on the study of relief-forming processes occurring within the earth’s surface, the sphere of morphogenesis has become the subject of research, which allowed us to consider relief forms and geological structures in their unity as three-dimensional formations. In accordance with the target installation, it became possible to evaluate a new level of the territories’ morphostructural plan with the deep structure relations and to establish a special relief-forming value of focal systems and fault zones, that play the role of the main energycarrying elements of the lithosphere and mediate the connection of deep and surface morphogenesis factors, as well as to solve a number of the other theoretical and applied problems. The proposed concept of focal tectomorphogenesis had a significant impact on the regional mountain building models creation and on the study of the morphostructural position of various mineral occurrences by rank, and also the assessment of magmatic, geodynamic and other processes reflected in the relief of the lithosphere. The results of geomorphological and morphotectonic investigations in Pacific Geographical Institute became an important contribution to the development of Science in the Far East of Russia. The originality and scientific significance of the ideas and theses, which were put forward and substantiated in numerous publications contributed to the emergence of the notion of “Far Eastern Geomorphological School”. The current achievements of space geodesy, elaborations related to the creation of bathymetric regional databases and digital global relief models under the programs (ETOPO1, GEBCO, Google Earth) could allow the morphostructural and morphotectonic research of the Far East territory to reach a qualitatively new level.
Keywords: Far East, endogenous geomorphology, morphostructure, morphotectonics, morphogenesis, history.
KOSHKAREV A.V. On the early history of Far Eastern geoinformatics and thematic mapping.
Abstract. The main focus of the work of the cartography laboratory of the Pacific Institute of Geography of the Far Eastern Scientific Center of the USSR Academy of Sciences (now the Pacific Geographical Institute of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences), established in 1976, was the use of geographic information systems (GIS) for the needs of thematic mapping of the region. Until the end of the 80s of the last century, the institute held a leading position in the development of new geographic information technologies. Among the results of its activities were the development of a computer mapping methodology within the framework of the Environmental Management Subprogram of the Target Complex Program “Far East”; the creation of a series of thematic maps and computer atlases, including the atlas “Spatial-temporal variability of crop yields in the south of the Far East” and the atlas “Spatial-temporal variability of non-infectious incidence of the population in the Far East. The results of the laboratory’s research in the field of geoinformatics were represented, in particular, in the monograph “Regional Geoinformation Systems” (authors A.V. Koshkarev and V.P. Karakin). These researches were conducted in close cooperation with other laboratories of the institute under conditions of constant exchange of experience with other academic organizations and universities, including the Institute of Geography of the USSR Academy of Sciences and Lomonosov Moscow State University. Some experiments on the interpretation of multispectral aerial photographs of the territory of the Middle Sikhote-Alin have been carried out. Despite the difficulties associated with the lack of technical tools and software, the chosen direction of the laboratory’s work was timely and correct, ensuring the further development of methods and technologies for geoinformation mapping of the Far Eastern region in the interests of geography in subsequent years and at present.
Keywords: geographic information systems, GIS, GIS technologies, computer mapping, Far East.
DEMYANENKO A.N. Features of the formation of the urban space of the Khabarovsk agglomeration.
Abstract. This article focuses on the formation of the urban space of the city of Khabarovsk and possible directions of its transformation. On the one hand, it supposes the choice of adequate research goal of the methodological platform, and, on the other hand, the choice of those theoretical models that make possible the description and exploration of urban space transformation processes. The location as the initial methodological premise means that the city and urban agglomeration are complex spatial systems, and, therefore, their study involves an interdisciplinary approach, that supposes the use of traditional research practices for cities micro-geography, and sociology and anthropology research methods (field primarily). The author stood by the functional-settlement approach, adapting it to the specific conditions of Amur region, due to reduced settlements network and configuration specifies of the transport network for determining Khabarovsk agglomeration boundaries. The same approach was used to mark out the agglomeration core and three concentric zones within it; agglomeration boundaries, zones and core differ not only in permeability, but also in quite clearly expressed rhythm. Socio-economic and vernacular zoning tools were used to identify the diversity of individual parts of the urban space. Micro districts were identified for special urban areas, which acted as structural elements of intra-urban areas, or filled lacuna between the boundaries of intra-urban areas. The research of Khabarovsk urban space suggests that vernacular districts, as city population reflection of urban space, as a rule, coincide with the intraurban areas distinguished on traditional grounds. In any case, the organizing centers of intra-urban areas and vernacular districts are the same with rare exceptions.
Keywords: Khabarovsk, Khabarovsk agglomeration, urban space, intra-urban areas, vernacular regionalization.
SIMOKON M.V., KOVEKOVDOVA L.T., NAREVICH I.S. Trace elements in water quality assessment of Lake Khanka.
Abstract. The levels of trace element concentrations in the surface water layer of Lake Khanka were assessed. Water samples were taken at 27 stations in February, May and September 2017. The concentrations of Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Pb were determined by mass-spectrometry using the inductively coupled plasma method. The data obtained by filtering water samples through membrane filters made it possible to estimate seasonal changes and the spatial distribution of trace elements in water and suspended matter, as well as to make an assumption about the possible sources of their entry into the water body. Seasonal fluctuations in concentrations are noted for most of the analyzed elements that is associated with changes in hydrological and hydrochemical conditions depending on the season. Elevated concentrations of elements were observed in the waters of the coastal areas. Based on the results of the correlation analysis of the content of elements in suspended matter, the groups of elements with a strong positive relation were identified. It was concluded that the increased concentrations of these elements in the lake water were due to high load of terrigenous matter entering the lake mainly with river runoff from the drainage basin during seasonal floods and with the process of adsorption – desorption of elements from the particles surface in water column. Anthropogenic load also plays a significant role in the increase in the concentration of trace elements in the water of Lake Khanka. The stressed ecological situation, characterized by increased concentrations of elements in the waters, in some cases exceeding the water quality standards, was formed in coastal areas under direct anthropogenic impact. Comparative analysis of the average concentrations of elements in the water of Lake Khanka with their average concentrations in the lakes in other regions of Russia and in freshwater bodies of the world did not reveal significant differences in the framework of the natural variability of the chemical composition of fresh waters.
Keywords: trace elements, suspended matter, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, coastal waters, seasonal changes.
Issue 4(8) 2021
50 years of Pacific Geographical Institute, FEB RAS
KACHUR A.N., LANKIN A.S. International projects of the Pacific Geographical Institute, FEB RAS – p.5
SHULKIN V.M., KHRISTOFOROVA N.K., CHERNOVA E.N., BOLDESKUL A.G., LUTSENKO T.N., YURCHENKO S.G., MAKAREVICH R.A. Geochemistry in Geography (50 years of the Laboratory of Geochemistry in PGI FEB RAS) – p.22
SIMONOV P.S., SIMONOV S.B., SIMONOVA T.L. Geographic research of small rodents at the Pacific Geographical Institute – p.36
POGORELOV A.R., RYABININA L.I. Current university geography in the Far Eastern Federal University: education and scientific potential – p.46
Examination of the territorial socioeconomic structures and their components
DRUZHININ A.G., GONTAR N.V. Federal support for leading coastal regions: budgetary priorities and special development regimes – p.59
Examination of the natural geosystems and their components
IVANOV A.N., KOBZEVA J.A. Landscape classification of the islands of North-West Pacific – p.72
The Round Table «Primorsky Krai’s Long-term Development and Governance Improvement: the View of Geographers». GANZEY K.S., BAKLANOV P.YA. – p.79
Resolution of the XVI Meeting of Geographers of Siberia and the Far East. BAKLANOV P.YA., VLADIMIROV I.N., GANZEY K.S., PLUSNIN V.M., MOSHKOV A.V. – p.81
Author index of articles published in 2021 – p.83
KACHUR A.N., LANKIN A.S. International projects of the Pacific Geographical Institute, FEB RAS.
Abstract. In view of the upcoming celebration on the 50th anniversary of the Pacific Geographical Institute (former – Pacific Institute of Geography), FEB RAS, the results of the development of international relations and scientific collaboration with foreign scientific institutions were summed up. This review provides generalized information about the most bright and significant international scientific projects and multilateral programs carried out at the Institute, from the moment of its establishment until present. The main accomplished international scientific projects with the Institute’s participation are given in chronological order, as well as the most significant international conferences and symposia held at the Institute are listed. The review includes only the international projects and activities in which the institute or its structural unit officially acted as a counterparty within the framework of the relationship model “institute, structural unit of the institute – foreign scientific institution, international fund or organization”. A significant portion of the Institute’s international scientific interaction within the framework of “an individual researcher of the institute – a foreign scientific institution, an international foundation or organization, a separate foreign scientist” remained outside the scope of this consideration due to size limits of a scientific journal article. The collaborative research topics include a wide range of works, namely: biosphere research, marine scientific expeditions, assessments of the current state and disturbance of the natural environment and biodiversity in transboundary areas, surveys of the ranges of tigers and leopards, recommendations on the creation of protected areas, problems of natural resources management, environmental monitoring and others. The most prominent and known international scientific projects and programs of the Kamchatka branch, a separate subdivision of the institute in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, are highlighted. The review gives a large number of bibliographic references to the results of the implementation of the joint projects, if published.
Keywords: Pacific Geographical Institute, international scientific collaboration, conferences, scientific expeditions, joint projects.
SHULKIN V.M., KHRISTOFOROVA N.K., CHERNOVA E.N., BOLDESKUL A.G., LUTSENKO T.N., YURCHENKO S.G., MAKAREVICH R.A. Geochemistry in Geography (50 years of the Laboratory of Geochemistry in PGI FEB RAS).
Abstract. The history of the founding and activities of the laboratory of geochemistry in PGI, FEB of RAS, is stated. The main stages of the research with a brief characteristic of the results obtained are described. The works of the last two decades are illustrated in more detail. The research field of the laboratory of geochemistry has always been multifaceted geochemical studies of the migration and transformation processes of the chemical substances in landscapes and aquatic ecosystems within the transition zone of land and ocean. The fundamental data on the geochemistry of hypergenic processes were obtained with an assessment of the impact of mining industry on the migration and concentration of heavy metals in various components of terrestrial landscapes and aquatic ecosystems. A comprehensive study of the aquatic ecosystems of the Russian Far East made it possible to characterize the influence of landscape-climatic and socio-economic factors on the chemical composition and quality of water resources. The main factors controlling the seasonal variability of the chemical composition of the river and coastal-sea waters of the region have been identified and evaluated. It was shown that patterns of migration of chemical compounds, including pollutants, in river, estuary and coastal-marine ecosystems can be used to monitor the chemical pollution and to assess the overall anthropogenic load on aquatic ecosystems. The results of the study of dynamics of modern landscape and geochemical processes and water migration of chemical elements in the mountain coniferous-deciduous landscapes of the south of the Russian Far East made it possible to reassess the biogeochemistry at the formation of the composition of groundwater and surface runoff. In conclusion, the data on the qualification progress of employees, their participation in the pedagogical process, the participation in the training of highly qualified personnel are given. The list of the major publications and involvement in the implementation of international projects and grants are listed as well.
Keywords: landscape geochemistry, water ecosystems, trace metals, anthropogenic press, Far East of Russia.
SIMONOV P.S., SIMONOV S.B., SIMONOVA T.L. Geographic research of small rodents at the Pacific Geographical Institute.
Abstract. The results of long-term research of small rodents at the Pacific Geographical Institute FEB RAS are given in the paper. A number of unique pioneering works were carried out to study the dynamics of the structure of the population of small rodents in the south of the Russian Far East by the zoological group under the leadership of S.B. Simonov. Approaches for mapping and forecasting the number of small mammals have been developed. The features of the height-zonal distribution of rodents have been revealed. The maximum correspondence of the identified high-altitude groups of rodents to the landscape-vegetation belts of specific mountain systems was found only in the summer period of the population maximums. The altitudinal zonation of the rodent population interpreted as the correspondence of the characteristic mammalian community to each landscape-vegetation belt is a particular case of the restructuring the structure of the populations of the species that form this population. For the first time, a comprehensive assessment of developing the epizootic process of hantavirus infection in populations of the main virus carriers in mountain-forest and forest-steppe landscapes is given. It has been established that the cycles of the population dynamics of rodents and the dynamics of the pathogenic agent of hantavirus infection in the forest focus are synchronous. The males of East Asian mice play a leading role in maintaining the epizootic process. In the mead-ow-field foci, such a pattern was not revealed. Comparison of the species structure of the population of small rodents with the structure of their infected part showed a high degree of consistence between them. This made it possible to use the maps of species ranges to construct the applied medico-geographical maps reflecting the genotypic structure of the hantavirus and its dynamics in the focal area. For the first time for Russia, a medical-geographical atlas of one nosoform, «Hantavirus infection in the Primorsky Krai», has been created. An original legend was developed and a zoogeographic map of the population of small rodents in the Primorsky Krai was built (scale 1: 500000).
Keywords: small rodents, spatial distribution, mapping, hantaviruses, Primorie, Sikhote-Alin.
POGORELOV A.P., RYABININA L.I. Current university geography in the Far Eastern Federal University: education and scientific potential.
Abstract. The present article is devoted to considering the current stage in the development of university geography in the Russian Far East. Geographical science is very topical because it is important for studying the natural and socio-economic characteristics of different territories, as well as for spatial and sustainable development of the Russian Far East. This thesis confirms the creation in 2020 of the National Program for the socio-economic development of the Far East Federal District of Russia. University geography in the Russian Far East has been developing at the Far Eastern University since 1964. Geographic professional education was implemented at the department of geography and sustainable development of geosystems of the Far Eastern Federal University. The department of geography and sustainable development of geosystems was created on basis of reorganization and consolidation of four departments of the Environmental Education Institute of the Far Eastern State University (physical geography; regional analysis and sustainable development; recreational geography; geography of the Asia-Pacific region). The article deals with the different features of educational, scientific and professional activities implemented at the department of geography and sustainable development of geosystems of the Far Eastern Federal University. The article describes the current achievement and most important scientific results of university geographers. The current sphere of scientific interests of university geographers includes physical geography and landscape science, economic and social geography, recreational and tourism geography, coastal studies. The most promising directions for the development of university geography at FEFU are landscape and territorial (spatial) planning, geographic foundations of management, issues and problems of environmental protection, recreational natural management, research problems of the development of aqua-territorial complexes, reproduction of the traditional life way and population migration, transformation of urban settlement systems in changing socio-economic conditions in the Far East and Asia-Pacific region. The conclusion summarizes different problems and prospects for the development of university geography in the Russian Far East.
Keywords: Far Eastern Federal University, school of natural sciences, department of geography and sustainable development of geosystems, geographical education, geographical research, international relationships.
DRUZHININ A.G., GONTAR N.V. Federal support for leading coastal regions: budgetary priorities and special development regimes.
Abstract. Strategic vectors of the state budget policy and the range of economic incentives for spatial and branch development are largely associated in the current economic trends with the goals of increasing the Russia’s marine economic activity in its key waters. Based on the analysis of the parameters of the budget process, the range of federal and regional measures of a pro-grammatic nature and tools of point tax and budget stimulus, the article considers the positions in the system of measures of a budgetary nature and the provision of federal support to the leading coastal regions of Russia, which are grouped into five spatial clusters (Arctic, Baltic, Caspian, Pacific, Black Sea-Azov). The article emphasizes the significant differentiation between the Arctic, Pacific and Baltic clusters, on the one hand, as well as the Caspian Sea and Black Sea-Azov clusters, on the other, according to the parameters of providing their own revenues with budgets and the role of free transfers. The study also made it possible to establish that the current software (as a part of the budget process) tools are used as a priority in the Black Sea-Azov cluster and in the Far East with simultaneous concentration of funding within the framework of “National Projects” in the coastal regions of the Black Sea-Azov cluster, as well as (to a significant extent) in the Baltic sea region and Arctic clusters (the concentration of project activity here is con-firmed by the implementation of the territories of advanced development and free economic zones mechanisms in a number of regions at once). It has been shown that this kind of “multi-vector” of federal support is largely associated with the prospects of localization of key sectors of the complex of “marine” sectors of the country’s economy and regions and generally corresponds to the geography of long-term geopolitical and geo-economic priorities of Russia.
Keywords: marine complex, coastal regions, budget, marine activity bases, coastal regions.
IVANOV A.N., KOBZEVA J.A. Landscape classification of the islands of North-West Pacific.
Abstract. The specific factors of island nature formation are discussed; the regularities of landscape structure of the North Pacific islands are systematized. The structure-genetic and function-dynamic integrity of submarine foundation and subaerial system of islands is analyzed. Issues of anthropogenic changes in the nature of the islands are briefly considered. An analysis of existing approaches for the islands of North-West Pacific classification was carried out. It was demonstrated that the geomorphological classifications are the most effective ones at the present moment. The significant part of them is based on the morphostructural location of island and on relief genesis. However, it has been established that such classification models reflect the genesis of island land relatively clearly and fully, but do not allow to cover diversity of island nature, as well as flora, fauna and soil peculiarities in total; this leads to necessity of landscape classification. At the same time, the use of already developed landscape classifications is limited by the fact that their classification objects are only geosystems of taxonomic level – landscapes - while in the island landscape science the objects are islands which may have different taxonomic ranks. Based on this, a multistage landscape classification of islands as well as a regional taxonomy for 92 islands of the Far Eastern seas in Russian Federation have been developed. The taxonomy is represented in a matrix form, where geological and geomorphological data (type of crust, genesis of the morphithogenic base, the prevail character of the relief, volcanism influence) are presented on one axis while the bioclimatic signs (location within geographic zone system, flora communities prevailing on island) on another one, and specific island signs (island square, isolation degree) are reflected in the corresponding cell of matrix. The represented model allows a sorting of all islands in the region at first approximation. Wherein each island is present once inside the matrix, and its characteristics are necessary and appropriate for separation from the nearest cells.
Keywords: island, landscape, classification, taxonomy, Far Eastern seas.